Sabtu, 07 September 2013

Artikel Bahasa Inggris



  1. How to Teach 1st Grade

  Teaching 1st grade will be different by teaching high school students. Required certain techniques so that the child can absorb lessons more fun considering the psychological child is still in the early learning stages.
The voice sounded clear enough by children, intonation, etc. are things that are very important to be possessed by the teacher. For early elementary grades, they are still considered early childhood, before providing early childhood learning, as teachers need to recognize the characteristics of elementary school age children first. Do not forget to always give something new and varied for them. No need expensive, objects in the environment can be the object of exploration for children.

The period is also very short of their concentration. Thus, teachers must have a second plan, and even third, fourth plan needs to be prepared for them so they do not saturate. Keep in mind that early childhood is a period play. Thus, the instruction given to them should be based on the principles of play (fun, children can explore, gain a lot of experience).
Children are not miniature adults but they have the characteristics and uniqueness of each. So, do not equate them with the high school kids that are easier on the set and was able to concentrate for a long time.


2. Mesothelioma Fact

        Mesothelioma is a rare form of cancer that occurs in the thin tissue that lines most of the internal organs.  Asbestos is the cause of about 90 percent of all mesothelioma cases.
Asbestos is a mineral found in the neighborhood. Asbestos fibers are strong and resistant to heat makes it very useful to be applied to a variety of needs. People who work in environments polluted many asbestos fibers have a greater risk of exposure mesothelioma.

            When asbestos split, asbestos dust is formed. If dust is inhaled or swallowed asbestos fibers will then settle in the lungs or in the stomach and can cause irritation that causes mesothelioma.

              Some people who over many years exposed to asbestos pollution can not have mesothelioma, while others the opposite. This indicates that other factors may be related, namely the hereditary factors do you have a family history of cancer in some people is a condition that increases the risk.

 Risk factors that may increase the risk of mesothelioma such as 
• Exposure to asbestos fiber dust pollution
• Living with someone who works in an environment with asbestos (the asbestos fibers are attached to their clothing or skin)
• Smoking
SV40 virus is found in many primates
• X-ray radiation
• Family history with mesothelioma

Many people who experienced mesothelioma exposed to asbestos fibers while working at places such as:
• Mine
• Factory worker
• Manufacturing of electronic components
• Construction of rail
• Shipbuilding
• Construction workers
• Mechanics

Prevention :
• Beware if you work in an environment with asbestos
• Follow standard safety regulations
• Do not use objects that contain asbestos in your neighborhood



Cost of Living in the United States Increasingly Expensive


     
Cost of living in the United States rose a higher than forecast in July. Conditions that would make the leaders of the Federal Reserve (The Fed) Ben S. Bernanke, increasingly difficult to convince his colleagues to act quickly to boost economic growth.

Data released by the U.S. Commerce Department showed that U.S. consumer price index rose 0.5 percent from June. That figure is two-fold higher than the median of economists surveyed by Bloomberg by 0.2 percent. Meanwhile, the Philadelphia region's economic index data released by The Fed also dropped to minus 30.7 in August, the lowest since March 2009.

"Lots of negative data. Increasing evidence that the economy is heading towards a recession will push Bernanke to take immediate action before the end of the year," said John Herrmann, Senior Fixed Income Strategist, State Street Global Markets LLC in Boston.

      However, continued Herrmann, rising cost of living data will limit the choice was. "Inflation data does not give The Fed ammunition to re-spawn unconventional monetary policy easing," he said.
In addition, a number of negative data center clung indeed the U.S. economy. Call it the stock market plunged and gold prices hit a record high.





4. Weaknesses of Indonesian Economic


Chamber of Indonesia Commerce and Industry (Kadin) declared Indonesian economy that is actually very promising for both domestic and foreign investors. However, there are still weaknesses seeing by Kadin of the economy that need to be addressed. Vice Chairman of Kadin Indonesia, Novian Anindya Bakrie said, promising Indonesian economy is evidenced by incoming investment, private consumption, and vibrant business world.
"But there are still some weaknesses that Indonesia's economic structure needs to be addressed now," said Anindya at Menara Kadin Jakarta, Wednesday (06/03/2013).
Anindya see Indonesia's economic weakness is in the trade deficit. Currently due to larger imports than exports then it makes more Indonesian trade balance to be deficit. Moreover, the largest import of oil and gas.
On the other hand, Anindya also highlights subsidy of oil (BBM) to the people who actually are not even on target. Current budget fuel subsidy enjoyed by the rich instead."As the impact, the deficit and the high pressure gas imports that led to the  weakening of the rupiah," he added.
Again, the actual budget for infrastructure even neglected. He rated in the last few months that there is no improvement of government policy so that a problem cannot be resolved. Though foreign investors intending to invest in Indonesia as it will look up the bureaucratic infrastructure. If not good, then foreign investors will pull out of Indonesia.



5. Pushtun tribes, The Place of Most Beautiful Girl in the World

       
         Since the release of conversation between Ahmad Lutfi Hasan Ishaaq and surrounding fathanah Pushtun term, many are wondering what is the Pushtun girl. Is it true that girls who come from one of the tribes in Afghanistan are the prettiest in the world ?
        At the hearing bribery cases of imported meat some time ago, opened the recording between LHI and Ahmad fathanah. Two words that tickle, is the word Pushtun and Java sarkiya. When asked to clarify word 'Pushtuns' have the impression for Lutfi Hasan Ishaaq, former MCC president.
"He explained that the Pushtun tribes in Pakistan. In fathanah was joke with it, Mr. Rogan describes as his beautiful wife Pustun tribe. Because it is a pretty well-known women from Pushtun tribes, "said attorney LHI, M. Assegaf.

         It is in fact the case. Pushtun tribes are one of the tribes in Afghanistan. Their population is in the east and south of the country is full of conflict. And, Pushtun tribal girl does have criteria for the so-called world prettiest girls.
Their main characteristics, are big eyes and sharp nose. Their eyes are so enchanting as capable of bewitching a person to continue to stare.

         Women in the Pushtun tribes themselves get very noble position. Women for them, like a flower that must be protected. Aka the most valuable treasure in the family.

     By Agustinus Wibowo spoken, author of The Borderline, "They highly value her, she is the most precious treasure." In fact it is said, people would be very embarrassed if Pushtun family members seen.

Whatever it is, still there are some Pushtun women who subsequently explore a career as a celebrity in Pakistan and India. Exoticism of their face to be one the strongest appeal. Do not believe ? Just look at the photo above.






Tartar Buildup

Tartar is a deposit that forms when plaque hardens on the tooth. Individuals vary greatly in their susceptibility to tartar buildup. For many, these deposits build up faster with age. Tartar is easily noticeable because of its yellow or brown color on teeth.

What Causes Tartar Buildup

When plaque accumulates and is not removed from teeth, it can harden and turn into tartar. Because tartar buildup bonds strongly to enamel, it can only be removed by a dental professional.

Help Prevent Tartar Buildup

While tartar can only be removed by a dental professional, you can avoid tartar buildup by removing plaque. To help prevent tartar, be sure to brush your teeth at least twice daily, preferably with a tartar-control fluoride toothpaste like many from Crest, and floss once a day with a product like Glide®. And visit your dental office regularly for oral exams and cleanings.

Kamis, 06 September 2012

Introduction to general linguistics

An introduction to the science of the study of language, known as Linguistics, with reasons for everyone to enjoy it.

Linguistics is the science of language, requiring and precipitating the study of human and animal languages and speech with their origins. As the purpose of language is to communicate, any study of communication is a study in linguistics by nature whether so asserted or not. Verbal as well as non-verbal communication are parts of linguistics. The written word, speech, Braille, sign language or the barks of a dog are all parts of the infinite study of Linguistics. A facial tick is not linguistics but a purposed wink or a smile from one to another is linguistics. Because it is intended to communicate something, whether or not it is as accurately or definitely communicated as a language of words is, it is linguistics. Linguistics as a science has two primary branches. In simple terms one branch covers the study of languages themselves while the other covers the effects of language on the world around us.


Linguistics is also the college major that many ascribe to before going on to careers in media, law, travel, telecommunications, journalism, international business, government, computer programming, advertising and a host of other really cool, seldom heard of or hard to get jobs. While we're on the subject, as an academic offering Linguistics is a close cousin to Sociology and to Psychology (my own personal major when I went to school; I received the BA, thank you). Whether you plan a casual or academic study in Linguistics, its rewards are many and immense. Only a handful of those rewards are covered here as we discuss why its study would be attractive to you.


Why is the study of linguistics on some level beneficial to everyone?


The study of Linguistics can help you reason out how and why children, nations and peoples adopt certain languages and what can happen in their development. This can help you to understand and appreciate your own language to gain confidence and personal strength in clarification. It can help you to better understand other peoples and how you are and are not alike. It can help you to help your children get it when it comes to your own language and to understand other kids with other unique languages.


A casual study of Linguistic science will open your eyes to the constant discussions in all the media about language preferences, uses, types and strengths and weaknesses. It will also help you understand and gain from the discussions. It may also help you if you plan to learn or learn about a foreign language someday. Should you want to do any study in early or foreign history, the languages of the times and peoples will be intertwined with it and Linguistics would give you a whole new angle on the period of interest. Linguistics can help you make and keep peace between you and many other peoples by showing how a word in your language means something else altogether in theirs. It could even help you understand other cultures well enough to avoid social blunders which could have horrific consequences. It can help you to realize that someone who seems to talk funny actually speaks quite intelligently, in their own tongue, and not funny at all.


Linguistics can help you to answer an infinite number of questions about the world you live in. Why, you may ask? Because Linguistics is a science that is tied in so many ways to so many other areas of study. Languages speak of the culture of the people and are the means of communication of most every science within that culture as well. Here are some examples of the types of questions the study of Linguistics can give you the joy of answering. Questions like why computers can't use a language other than math and whether in fact math is a language? Aren't computer languages accepted as fulfilling college language requirements now? If computers can only use languages that are based on math, doesn't that make math a language as well as an independent science? Could we process useful thought without language? Are pictures a form of language? Some of the questions more closely related to Linguistics are questions like how do we understand one another? How do we learn our native tongues without a teacher? What causes languages to evolve?


The study of Linguistics is inherently also a developer of several talents. These talents include the use and discipline of personal logic, analytical and critical thought as well as skills of organized debate. Linguistics also enhances one's traits of objectivity and creative insightfulness.


Linguistics will encompass the study of politics and geography. It provides tools for examining almost every other subject. It is a fascinating science in itself and yet one that anyone can study beneficially on some level. If you want the quickest trip from average to interesting in conversation, study Linguistics. If you want to seem more and more brilliant to your peers, study Linguistics. If you want a hobby no one else you know has but that everyone wants to hear about, study Linguistics.

Menurut KBBI Daring, sosiolinguistik adalah ilmu tentang bahasa yang digunakan di dalam interaksi sosial; cabang linguistik tentang hubungan dan saling pengaruh antara perilaku bahasa dan perilaku sosial.
(http://pusatbahasa.kemdiknas.go.id/kbbi/index.php)
• Ferdinaen Saragih (2008) dalam http://sigodang.blogspot.com/2008/10/pengertian-sosiolinguistik-selengkapnya.html) menyebutkan pengertian sosiolinguistik yaitu cabang linguistik yang mengkaji hubungan antara bahasa dan masyarakat penuturnya. Selin itu, terdapat juga beberapa pengertian linguistik lainnya menurut beberapa ahli linguistik:

Pengertian Semiotik
Posted on September 30, 2010 by tagratis

Semiotik (semiotic) adalah teori tentang pemberian ‘tanda’. Secara garis besar semiotik digolongkan menjadi tiga konsep dasar, yaitu semiotik pragmatik (semiotic pragmatic), semiotik sintatik (semiotic syntactic), dan semiotik semantik (semiotic semantic) (Wikipedia,2007).

Semiotik Pragmatik (semiotic pragmatic)

Semiotik Pragmatik menguraikan tentang asal usul tanda, kegunaan tanda oleh yang menerapkannya, dan efek tanda bagi yang menginterpretasikan, dalam batas perilaku subyek. Dalam arsitektur, semiotik prakmatik merupakan tinjauan tentang pengaruh arsitektur (sebagai sistem tanda) terhadap manusia dalam menggunakan bangunan. Semiotik Prakmatik Arsitektur berpengaruh terhadap indera manusia dan perasaan pribadi (kesinambungan, posisi tubuh, otot dan persendian). Hasil karya arsitektur akan dimaknai sebagai suatu hasil persepsi oleh pengamatnya, hasil persepsi tersebut kemudian dapat mempengaruhi pengamat sebagai pemakai dalam menggunakan hasil karya arsitektur. Dengan kata lain, hasil karya arsitektur merupakan wujud yang dapat mempengaruhi pemakainya.

Semiotik Sintaktik (semiotic syntactic)

Semiotik Sintaktik menguraikan tentang kombinasi tanda tanpa memperhatikan ‘makna’nya ataupun hubungannya terhadap perilaku subyek. Semiotik Sintaktik ini mengabaikan pengaruh akibat bagi subyek yang menginterpretasikan. Dalam arsitektur, semiotik sintaktik merupakan tinjauan tentang perwujudan arsitektur sebagai paduan dan kombinasi dari berbagai sistem tanda. Hasil karya arsitektur akan dapat diuraikan secara komposisional dan ke dalam bagian-bagiannya, hubungan antar bagian dalam keseluruhan akan dapat diuraikan secara jelas.


Semiotik Semantik (semiotic semantic)

Semiotik Sematik menguraikan tentang pengertian suatu tanda sesuai dengan ‘arti’ yang disampaikan. Dalam arsitektur semiotik semantik merupakan tinjauan tentang sistem tanda yang dapat sesuai dengan arti yang disampaikan. Hasil karya arsitektur merupakan perwujudan makna yang ingin disampaikan oleh perancangnya yang disampaikan melalui ekspresi wujudnya. Wujud tersebut akan dimaknai kembali sebagai suatu hasil persepsi oleh pengamatnya. Perwujudan makna suatu rancangan dapat dikatakan berhasil jika makna atau ‘arti’ yang ingin disampaikan oleh perancang melalui rancangannya dapat dipahami dan diterima secara tepat oleh pengamatnya, jika ekspresi yang ingin disampaikan perancangnya sama dengan persepsi pengamatnya.



Definition:

The study of the relationship between language and its functions in social settings.

In systemic functional linguistics (SFL), three strata make up the linguistic system: meaning (semantics), sound (phonology), and wording or lexicogrammar (syntax, morphology, and lexis).

Systemic functional linguistics treats grammar as a meaning-making resource and insists on the interrelation of form and meaning.

See also:
Applied Linguistics
Linguistics
Meaning
Pragmatics
Register
Semiotics
Sociolinguistic

LINGUISTICS
Apakah Linguistics itu ?
Linguistics itu adalah ilmu bahasa ( ilmu yang mempelajari bahasa ).
Lingiistics berusaha untuk menjawab pertanyaan – apakah bahasa itu ? Dan bagaimana diperankan didalam ingatan ?. Linguistics menjelaskan gambaran dan keterangan bahasa dan bukan terdiri dengan peraturan-peraturan, petunjuk dari bahasa ( ie. Bukan sedikit kata yang banyak ). Linguistik tidak memerlukan untuk mengetahui banyak bahasa-bahasa dan Linguistics bukan menterjemahkan ( penterjemahan kata ).

Tujuan pokok yang mendasari dari linguistics adalah mencoba mencari jalan terjadinya bahasa secara umum bahwa : Apakah unsur-unsur yang umum dari semua bahasa-bahasa. Linguistics mencoba menempatkan unsure-unsur ini kedalam kerangka tiori( kerangka kerja tiori ) yang akan menggambarkan semua bahasa-bahasa dan juga memprediksikan apa yang tidak dapat terjadi dalam sebuah bahasa.
Linguistics adalah ilmu social bagian dasar yang umum diantara ilmu social lainnya, seperti psychology, antropologi, sosiologi archacologi. Dia juga boleh dimasukkan diantara disiplin-disiplin ilmu seperti bahasa Inggris ( belajar bicara dalam bahasa Inggris ). Dan ilmu yhang mempelajari computer. Linguistics untuk yang paling lebih dulu mengambil tempat dapat mempertimbangkan sebuah ilmu pengetahuan, berhubungan dengan psychology, philoshopy dan ilmu computer ). Linguistics adalah usaha paling akhir dengan bagaimana fungsi( Otak ) manusia.
Dibawah ini ada beberapa perbedaan disiplin-disiplin ilmu termasuk linguistics. Ruang dari phonetics, phonology, morphology, sintase, semantics dan pemahiran bahasa mempertimbangkan ruang-ruang inti dari pembelajaran dan sebuah pengetahuan yang kokoh pada tiap-tiap biasanya dalam menawarkan untuk mengatasi lebih banyak masalah kedepannya.

Phonetics;
Phonetics adalah ilmu yang memepelajri produksi dan persepsi dari bunyisuara. Bunyi suara ini terjadi bersama susunan yang mendasar itu dari bahasa Inggris sebagai contohnya telah mempunyai subject, verb, object kalimat menyatakan ( Jhon Hit The Ball ),. Proses transformasi akan diikuti oleh sebuah perubahan dari kata ( peranan kata ) yang diberikan padamu seperti “ The ball was hit by Jhon “


Semantics
Semantics adalah mempelajari arti kata. Dia memfokuskan dengan menggambarkan bagaimana kita mengartikan kalimat dari sebuah kata kedalam pikiran kita, dan bagaimana kita menggunakan gambaran ini didalam pembuatan kalimat-kalimat semantic adalah dasar yang sangat luas pada pembelajaran logika didalam philosophy.

Linguage Acquisition ( Pemahiran Bahasa )
Pemahiran bahasa menguji bagaimana anak-anak belajar berbicara dan bagaimana orang dewasa belajar bahasa kedua.
Pemahiran bahasa adalah sangat penting karena pemahiran bahasa akan memberikan kita wawasan kedalam pokok-pokok yang mendasariproses-proses dari bahasa. Ada dua bagian yang memberikan sumbangan pada pemahiran bahasa. Pengetahuan yang dimilikioleh pembelajar ( disebut universal grammar atau UG ) dalam lingkungan. Catatan dari p[ada UG mempunyai pengertian yang luas, UG mengambil kesimpulan bahwa semua perlakuan bahasa-bahasa dalam kerangka yang sama dan pengertian dari kerangka ini akan member petunjuk ( mengisi ) yang lebih luas untuk member pengertian apakah bahasa itu .


Disiplin-disiplin ilmu itu adalah :
 SosioliSnguistics ; mempelajari hubungan-hubungan dari bahasa dan susunan social, macam-macam linguistics, persepsi dan pemahiran bahasa.
Neolinguistics ; mempelajri jiwa dan bagimanafungsi dalam menghasilkan, pengaturan dan pemahiran dari bahasa.
Historical Linguistics ; mempelajari terjemahan bahasa dan hubungan antara bahasa-bahasa.
 Anthropological Linguistics ; mempelajari bahasa dan budaya ( kebudayaan ) dan bagaimana interaksi mereka ( kebudayaan itu ).
Pragmatics ; ilmu yang mempelajri arti dalam hubungannya